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Derek Chauvin, 45, is taken to maximum security prison and placed on suicide watch

Beneath is a recap of all of the witnesses who testified at Derek Chauvin’s trial by means of April 16, so as of look. 

PROSECUTION 

911 dispatcher Jenna Scurry 

The prosecution’s first witness on March 29 was Jenna Scurry, a 911 dispatcher who watched reside video of police kneeling on Floyd and testified that she referred to as the officers’ supervisor with issues about their use of pressure.  

It was Scurry who despatched officers to the Cup Meals at thirty eighth and Chicago Avenue on Could 25, 2020, after receiving a name a few man utilizing a counterfeit invoice. 

Scurry advised how she had seen surveillance footage of the incident from one of many metropolis’s pole mounted cameras and been struck by a ‘intestine intuition’ that ‘one thing wasn’t proper’. 

The video, which had not beforehand been launched publicly, confirmed Chauvin and fellow officers Lane and Kueng perched atop Floyd subsequent to a squad automobile whereas officer Thao regarded on. 

Scurry famous that she wasn’t watching the stream the whole time as a result of she was fielding different calls. However she stated that as she glanced away and again once more, she was struck that the officers hadn’t moved and requested a colleague if the display screen had frozen. 

‘I first requested if the screens had frozen as a result of it hadn’t modified. I assumed one thing could be unsuitable,’ she stated.  

She stated that she hadn’t wished to be a ‘snitch’ however she acknowledged what seemed to be use of pressure and acknowledged: ‘I took that intuition and I referred to as the sergeant.’

Assistant Lawyer Normal Matthew Frank performed audio from the decision, by which Scurry stated: ‘I don’t know if that they had to make use of pressure or not. They received one thing out of the again of the squad and all of them sat on this man. So I don’t know in the event that they wanted to or not however they haven’t stated something to me but.’ 

‘You’ll be able to name me a snitch if you wish to,’ she added.

She stated she made the decision to ‘voice my issues’ and famous that she had by no means made one prefer it to a police sergeant earlier than.    

Cross inspecting Scurry, Chauvin’s legal professional Eric Nelson was at pains to underscore gaps in what she noticed and the details that she had no police coaching, little information of what the calls to which she despatched officers truly regarded like and identified that her consideration was not skilled on the display screen always.

Bystander Alisha Oyler  

Alisha Oyler, a cashier on the Speedway gasoline station reverse Cup Meals who recorded video of Floyd’s arrest was the state’s second witness. 

‘Making an attempt to not cuss’ and ceaselessly failing to recall occasions Oyler defined that she had first seen police ‘messing with somebody’ exterior the Dragon Wok restaurant reverse Cup Meals. 

She stated she had watched officers handcuff Floyd and take him throughout to the now notorious web site of squad automobile 320 in entrance of the shop’s entrance and continued to file occasions on her cellphone as she stepped out to have a cigarette.

She stated she had achieved so as a result of the police have been ‘at all times messing with folks and it’s not proper’.

MMA fighter and bystander Donald Williams

Donald Winn Williams II, a blended martial arts fighter and the prosecution’s third witness who had yelled at Chauvin to test for a pulse and accused him of putting Floyd in what he referred to as a ‘kill choke’, testified first on March 29 earlier than persevering with on March 30. 

Williams turned emotional as he spoke about how he referred to as 911 after Floyd was positioned in an ambulance as a result of:  ‘I believed I had simply witnessed a homicide. I felt the necessity to name the police on the police.’

He started to cry as jurors have been performed audio of the decision, by which he named officer 987 and stated: ‘He simply just about killed this man. He wasn’t resisting arrest. He had his knee on his neck. He wasn’t resisting arrest or nothing, he was handcuffed.’ 

Williams stated he witnessed Chauvin ‘shimmying’, or adjusting his place on Floyd’s neck, in a acknowledged martial artwork maneuver designed to double-down on and tighten a choke maintain.

He advised how he watched Chauvin squeeze the life out of Floyd, who he stated was in ‘great ache’ and ‘pale away like a fish in a bag’. 

He stated that when he referred to as Chauvin out for utilizing a blood choke the officer regarded him straight within the eye and didn’t cease.  

Williams additionally advised how Officer Tou Thao put his palms on his chest and pushed him again to the curb when he tried to intervene.   

On the finish of his 911 name Williams was heard shouting at Thao: ‘Y’all murderers man, y’all murderers.’   

On cross-examination, Chauvin’s legal professional Eric Nelson tried to undercut William’s presentation of himself as a managed {and professional} observer of occasions who remained schooled by his coaching and expertise in sports activities and safety.

Nelson seemed to be making an attempt to impress Williams right into a show of anger as he repeatedly tried to discredit his claims to having remained calm.

‘You began calling [Chauvin] names didn’t you?’ Nelson requested. ‘You referred to as him, ‘a troublesome man.’ You referred to as him ‘such a person,’ ‘bogus.’ You referred to as him a ‘bum’ 13 instances. You referred to as him a ‘bitch.”

However whereas Williams agreed to all of those assertions he wouldn’t be persuaded to conform to Nelson’s characterization of him as ‘offended’ or threatening.

Requested if he had advised Officer Tou Thao that he hoped he would shoot himself he stated: ‘No..I stated you’ll shoot your self in two years due to what you probably did.’ 

Bystander Darnella Frazier, 18 

Darnella Frazier, who was 17 years previous when she recorded probably the most well-known viral video of Floyd’s arrest final spring, took the stand on March 30 and advised how she felt helpless as she watched him lose consciousness. 

‘There’s been nights I’ve stayed up apologizing to George Floyd for not doing extra and never bodily interacting, not saving his life,’ Darnella, now 18, stated.  ‘Nevertheless it’s not what I ought to have achieved –  it’s what [Chauvin] ought to have achieved.’

Darnella – who was not proven on digicam in courtroom due to her age – asserted that Chauvin pressed his knee into Floyd’s neck even tougher because the rising crowd begged him to cease – and that he didn’t take away his knee even when paramedics have been trying to find a pulse. 

‘I heard George Floyd saying: “I can’t breathe, please get off of me.” He cried for his mother and he was in ache,’ Darnella stated. ‘It appeared like he knew it was over for him. He was terrified, he was struggling. This was a cry for assist.’ 

When an ambulance arrived, Darnella stated paramedics needed to inform Chauvin to take away his knee from Floyd’s neck. 

Darnella stated that she felt ‘threatened’ by each Chauvin and Thao who she stated ‘have been fast to place their palms on their mace’ when a girl who recognized herself as a firefighter requested Chauvin to test for a pulse and he or she and Darnella made to maneuver in the direction of Floyd the place he lay. 

Requested if, at any level, Chauvin had ‘received up or let up’ she stated: ‘If something he truly was kneeling tougher. It regarded like he was shoving his knee in his neck.’ 

On the shut of her testimony Darnella broke down as she advised jurors how witnessing and filming Floyd’s dying affected her life.

‘After I take a look at George Floyd I take a look at my dad, I look my brothers, I take a look at my cousins, my uncles as a result of they’re all black,’ she stated. ‘I’ve a black father, black brother, black mates and I take a look at that and I believe how that might have been them.’ 

Bystander Judeah, 9 

9-year-old witness Judeah, took the witness stand on March 29 and described how she and her cousin Darnella, who testified earlier, had gone to Cup Meals for snacks on Could 25 once they discovered Floyd pinned to the bottom by Chauvin and two different cops. 

The woman, who was not proven on digicam as a consequence of her age, gave gut-wrenching testimony about how Chauvin refused to take away his knee from Floyd’s neck even after paramedics arrived and ‘requested him properly to get off of him’. 

‘He [Chauvin] nonetheless stayed on him [Floyd],’ Judeah stated. She stated the medics ultimately ‘simply needed to put him off, get him off of him.’ 

‘I used to be unhappy and form of mad. If felt like he was stopping his respiration and form of hurting him,’ Judeah stated of Floyd. 

Judeah is pictured second from the proper in a inexperienced shirt in video from Floyd’s deadly confrontation with police that was proven in courtroom

Bystander Alyssa, 18

The prosecution’s fourth witness on March 30 was an 18-year-old named Alyssa, who advised how she had walked in the direction of the incident and began recording on her pal’s cellphone as a result of she felt ‘one thing was unsuitable’.  

Alyssa broke down in tears as she described what of Floyd, saying: ‘It’s tough [to talk about] as a result of I felt like there wasn’t something I may do…and I felt like I used to be failing him, failing to do something.’ 

Alyssa stated that Chauvin didn’t transfer his knee even on the arrival of paramedics and in reality she noticed him put extra weight on Floyd’s neck because the minutes ticked by.

‘He [Chauvin] didn’t actually take his eyes off him [Floyd] for probably the most half. At one level I noticed him put an increasing number of weight onto him. I noticed his again foot raise off the bottom and his palms go in his pocket.’

‘I noticed him transfer his knee down extra, make little actions,’ she added.

The prosecution performed the video recorded by Alyssa, by which she could possibly be heard shouting: ‘He’s not transferring. Test his pulse. Inform me his pulse proper now. It’s been over a minute [since he moved].’

She advised the jury: ‘I knew that point was working out. He was going to die.’

Lastly she stated, there got here a degree when ‘I form of knew that he was lifeless and never respiration, not combating, not resisting.’

Bystander Kaylynn, 17 

Alyssa’s pal, 17-year-old Kaylynn, was the final minor to testify on March 30. 

She stated that it was the cops who have been ‘hostile’ not the group recalling how Chauvin was ‘digging his knee into George Floyd’s neck’ and ‘grabbed his mace and began shaking it at us’ when onlookers shouted at him to test for a pulse.

‘I used to be scared as a result of I didn’t know what was going to occur,’ she stated. Requested instantly what she was frightened of, she replied: ‘I used to be frightened of Chauvin.’

Off-duty firefighter Genevieve Hansen

Off-duty Minneapolis firefighter and paramedic Genevieve Hansen, 27, induced a stir within the courtroom on March 30 when she was admonished by Choose Cahill for repeatedly interrupting and speaking again to Chauvin’s legal professional Nelson throughout cross examination. 

Hansen had wiped away tears as she recalled how she had recognized herself as a primary responder and begged to assist Floyd when she believed he was dying exterior the Cup Meals retailer on Could 25, 2020. 

However quickly after her demeanor modified as she was questioned by Nelson, who requested if she would describe bystanders on the scene of Floyd’s arrest as upset or offended. 

Hansen replied: ‘I don’t know in case you’ve seen anyone be killed, nevertheless it’s upsetting.’ 

At this level Choose Cahill stepped in and cautioned Hansen for being argumentative, telling her to ‘simply reply his questions’. 

Minutes later Cahill despatched the jury out for the day earlier than turning to an more and more combative Hansen and telling her in no unsure phrases: ‘You’ll not argue with the courtroom, you’ll not argue with counsel.’    

Below direct examination, Hansen defined how her determined pleas to be allowed to supply Floyd with life-saving medical help have been ignored by the officers who pinned him down and blocked by officer Thao.

‘I attempted calm and reasoning, I pleaded and was determined. I used to be determined to assist,’ Hansen stated. 

Her calls fell on deaf ears as Chauvin remained unmoved and Officer Thao advised her to stay on the curb, at one level saying: ‘In the event you actually are a Minneapolis firefighter you’d know higher than to become involved.’ 

In courtroom Hansen stated: ‘That’s precisely what I ought to have achieved. There was no medical help on the scene and I may have given [it].’  

‘The officers have been leaning over his physique with what seemed to be the vast majority of their weight on him,’ she stated. ‘He wasn’t transferring, he was cuffed and three grown males placing all their weight on anyone – that’s an excessive amount of. 

‘Chauvin appeared very snug with the vast majority of his weight balanced on prime of Mr Floyd’s neck. In my reminiscence he had his hand in his pocket. He wasn’t distributing the burden on the automobile, on the pavement.’

Hansen stated that she had assessed that Floyd had a ‘altered degree of consciousness,’ that involved her tremendously.

She stated that his face was ‘smooshed’ into the pavement and stated: ‘I used to be actually involved. I assumed his face regarded puffy and swollen which might occur in case you have been placing a grown man’s weight [on him].

‘I seen some fluid coming from what regarded like George Floyd’s physique and lots of time we see a affected person launch their bladder once they die – that’s the place my thoughts went. He was restrained however he wasn’t transferring.’

Hansen stated she acknowledged that Floyd was unconscious as a result of he was not responding to the ‘painful stimulae’ of Chauvin’s knee on his neck. 

‘What I wanted to know was whether or not or not he had a pulse anymore,’ she stated. However she stated she was not permitted entry to the scene and the officers ignored her gives to speak them by means of CPR.

She stated she felt ‘helpless.’ ‘There’s a person being killed,’ she stated, ‘and had I had entry I might have [helped]. This human was denied that proper.’

Earlier than she took the stand jury noticed video she had recorded on the scene and heard audio of the 911 name she positioned instantly after.

Her voice trembling with shock and emotion she could possibly be heard telling the operator: ‘I actually simply watched cops not take a pulse and to not do something to save lots of a person and I’m a primary responder myself and I actually have it on video.’ 

In an uncomfortable cross-examination, Hansen refused to be drawn into an admission that she can be distracted from her job if a threatening crowd have been gathered telling her she was ‘doing it unsuitable’.

Time after time Nelson tried to get an admission out of her till she stated: ‘I believe a burning construction the place there are buildings and houses and folks residing on both aspect is far more regarding than 20 folks.

‘I’ll repeat myself, I do know my job, I’m assured in doing my job and there’s nothing anyone can do to disturb me.’ 

When he requested if she had grown offended, she stated she had been ‘determined’ earlier than admitting: ‘I received fairly offended after Mr Floyd was loaded into the ambulance and there was no level in making an attempt to cause with them anymore as a result of that they had simply killed anyone.’  

Cup Meals worker Christopher Martin 

Cup Meals clerk Christopher Martin testified on March 31 about how his coworker referred to as the cops on Floyd as a result of he believed he used a counterfeit $20 invoice on Could 25.

Trying again, Martin stated he wished he’d by no means raised alarm concerning the invoice as a result of he believes Floyd would possibly nonetheless be alive if he hadn’t, telling the courtroom: ‘This might have been prevented.’  

Martin advised the courtroom that he turned suspicious of the invoice as a result of it had an uncommon ‘blue pigment so I assumed it was faux’. 

‘The coverage was in case you took a counterfeit invoice you needed to pay for it out of your pay-check,’ Martin defined. ‘I took it in any case and was planning to only put it on my tab – till I second guessed myself and ultimately advised my supervisor.’ 

The supervisor then instructed Martin to go exterior and convey Floyd again, he stated. When Floyd refused, a co-worker referred to as police. One of many responding officers was Chauvin. 

Martin stated that the 2 issues he seen about Floyd have been his ‘dimension’ and he seemed to be ‘excessive’. 

Nonetheless he stated that he didn’t discover Floyd’s demeanor to be threatening, saying: ‘He appeared very pleasant, approachable, talkative, he appeared simply to be having a median Memorial Day residing his life. However he did appear excessive.’    

Martin stated he went again to manning the money register when police arrived however quickly after seen a commotion on the entrance of Cup Meals and went exterior, the place he noticed Floyd pinned to the bottom.  

‘I noticed folks yelling and screaming I noticed Derek [Chauvin] together with his knee on George’s neck on the bottom,’ he stated.

‘George was immobile, limp and Chauvin appeared very…he was in a resting state, which means like he simply rested his knee on his neck.’

Martin, who lived above the shop, stated: ‘I pulled my telephone out first and referred to as my mother and advised her to not come downstairs. Then I began recording.

‘Afterward that night time I deleted it as a result of once they picked George up off the bottom the ambulance went straight down thirty eighth and the quickest option to get to the hospital is straight down Chicago Avenue.’

Martin stated he assumed from this that Floyd was already lifeless and deleted his recording as he didn’t wish to have to point out it to anyone or reply questions on it within the aftermath.

Requested how he had felt as he absorbed what he had simply witnessed, Martin stated ‘disbelief and guilt’.

Martin, who had earlier advised jurors that he had virtually not reported the faux invoice and solely achieved so after second-guessing himself, stated: ‘If I might have simply not taken the invoice this might have been prevented.’

Requested if he nonetheless labored at Cup Meals, Martin’s voice cracked as he stated: ‘No. I didn’t really feel protected.’

Bystander Christopher Belfrey, 45 

Christopher Belfrey testified on March 31 about video he recorded when he drove previous Cup Meals and say officers Lane and Kueng approaching Floyd in his automobile.   

Belfrey, 45, stated he began recording when parked instantly behind Floyd’s SUV as a result of he was ‘startled’ to see Lane draw his handgun.

He defined that he pulled to the opposite aspect of the road, not eager to ‘get within the center’ of no matter was occurring and continued recording.

The courtroom watched the footage by which Floyd could be seen, apparently cuffed and compliant, seated in opposition to a wall having been faraway from his car. In line with Belfrey, Lane and Kueng then walked Floyd throughout to their squad automobile and put him in it.

Belfrey stated that he had merely gone residence at that time as a result of ‘I assumed he was detained. I assumed it was over.’

Bystander Charles McMillian, 61 

Charles McMillian, who was the primary particular person to confront police about their remedy of Floyd on the day of his deadly arrest, broke down in tears because the prosecution performed footage of cops wrestling with the handcuffed black man.  

McMillian, 61, stated he was driving by the Cup Meals comfort retailer when he seen officers combating Floyd and pulled over just because he was ‘being nosy’. 

In footage from Lane’s physique digicam McMillian was heard calling out as cops grappled with Floyd of their squad automobile. 

McMillian stated he ‘tried to make the state of affairs straightforward,’ by telling Floyd: ‘You’ll be able to’t win.’  

Floyd could possibly be heard telling McMillian: ‘I’m not making an attempt to win. Don’t do me like that, I’m claustrophobic.’ 

As he described how Floyd started to cry out for his mom minutes later whereas pinned to the bottom by the officers, McMillian wept as he revealed that he understood how Floyd felt after dropping his personal mother. 

‘I couldn’t assist however really feel helpless. I don’t have a mama both, however I perceive him. My mother died June twenty fifth,’ the witness stated by means of tears.  

He revealed that he had expertise of being handcuffed himself and as Floyd turned extra agitated, having been apparently calm as he was walked in the direction of officers Lane and Kueng’s squad automobile, McMillian stated he tried to assist.

The courtroom performed footage of the occasions as McMillian described them. One clip of McMillian on the sidewalk was spliced with physique digicam footage of Floyd within the squad automobile.  

‘I’m watching, , Mr Floyd,’ McMillian stated. ‘He collapsed onto the again seat and I’m making an attempt to get him to grasp once you make a mistake, as soon as they get you in cuffs you bought to attend there. As soon as they get you in cuffs you possibly can’t win.’  

McMillian then described how he continued to attempt to assist Floyd after officers Lane, Kueng and Chauvin had pinned him to the bottom.  

‘[Floyd] saved saying: ‘I can’t breathe. Mama they’re killing me, they’re killing me.’ He began saying: ‘My physique’s shutting down.” 

As extra of the video was performed McMillian’s voice could possibly be heard urging Floyd: ‘Rise up and get into the automobile. Rise up and get into the automobile man.’

Floyd responded: ‘I can’t.’

Later McMillian could possibly be heard telling Chauvin: ‘Your knee on his neck, that’s unsuitable man.’

Of his personal half within the scene, McMillian stated: ‘I used to be making an attempt to assist him. He seemed to be out and in [of consciousness], with foam round his mouth. I stated: ‘Man he stated he can’t breathe,’ and so they stated: ‘Properly if he retains speaking he can breathe.”

The jury was proven body-cam footage by which McMillian advised Chauvin: ‘I don’t respect what you probably did.’ The officer replied: ‘Properly that’s one particular person’s opinion. We received to regulate this man as a result of he’s a sizeable man and appears like he’s in all probability on one thing.’ 

Minneapolis Police Lt Jeff Rugel  

Lt Jeff Rugel, who runs the Minneapolis Police Division’s Enterprise Know-how Unit, testified on March 31 to authenticate officers’ physique digicam footage and different video proof from the scene. 

Transient footage from Chauvin’s digicam was performed, revealing his perspective as he approached Floyd for the primary time.

Chauvin was seen together with his palms round Floyd’s neck as he and Officer Thomas Lane struggled with to get him right into a squad automobile. 

After a chaotic, blurred portion of footage, Chauvin’s digicam fell to the tarmac and there was no extra footage from his perspective.

In footage recorded by Lane’s physique digicam, Chauvin’s digicam could possibly be seen mendacity beneath the squad automobile.  It’s unclear precisely how the digicam got here to be on the bottom in the course of the confrontation.  

Rugel advised the jury how that Minneapolis police coverage calls for that officers put on their cameras always and to activate them throughout any exercise or public interplay.  

Requested if Chauvin wore a physique digicam and if that was ‘the field on the ground [beneath squad car 320]’, Rugel stated: ‘Sure.’ 

George Floyd’s girlfriend Courteney Ross

Courteney Ross broke down in tears inside minutes of taking the stand on Thursday as she described how she and Floyd first met in 2017  on the Salvation Military’s Harbor Gentle Middle, a shelter the place he was working as a safety guard and he or she was visiting her son’s father. 

The married mother-of-two stated she was touched when Floyd requested to hope together with her as a result of she was going by means of a tough time in her personal life – and so they kissed within the foyer that very same day. 

Ross – who wore a gold necklace together with her late boyfriend’s identify – started crying even tougher when Frank pulled up a photograph of Floyd. 

Then she laughed as she referred to as the picture a ‘dad selfie’, earlier than telling how onerous it was for Floyd to be so far-off from his two daughters, who lived in Texas. 

She described the person who had referred to as out for his mom in his dying moments as ‘a mama’s boy’ who was ‘devastated’ and ‘damaged’ by her dying in Could 2018. 

‘He appeared like a shell of himself like he was damaged, he appeared so unhappy,’ she stated. ‘He didn’t have the identical form of bounce that he had.’  

Ross was then requested to sort out head on the problem of drug abuse with which, she admitted, each she and Floyd struggled. 

She stated that they have been each hooked on opioids having been prescribed them for continual ache – together with oxycodone, which he took in capsule type, acquiring it by means of different folks’s prescriptions to verify the tablets have been protected. 

‘Each Floyd and I, our story — it’s a traditional story of how many individuals get hooked on opioids. We each suffered from continual ache. Mine was in my neck and his was in his again. 

‘We each have prescriptions. However after prescriptions that have been stuffed, and we received addicted, and tried actually onerous to interrupt that dependancy many instances.’ 

Although he tried to get clear, she stated it was one thing that he struggled with ‘day by day’.

In March 2020, she stated, she seen ‘behavioral modifications’ that made her suspect that Floyd was utilizing once more, or extra, and that she too fell into heavier use at the moment.  

On cross examination by Chauvin’s legal professional Eric Nelson, Ross revealed that that she and Floyd each bought opioids from Morries Lester Corridor, a pal who was within the passenger seat of Floyd’s automobile on the day he died.   

Jurors heard that Corridor bought managed substances to each her and Floyd and that she ‘didn’t like Morries in any respect’. 

Ross advised the courtroom how, in March 2020, simply two months earlier than Floyd’s dying, he bought tablets that she didn’t acknowledge because the opioids to which each she and Floyd have been addicted.

She stated the tablets, which she believes landed Floyd within the hospital as a consequence of an unintentional overdose, appeared ‘thick’ and weren’t uniform, and that when she took them they didn’t have the identical impact as opioids.

‘The capsule appeared prefer it was a very robust stimulant. I couldn’t sleep all night time. I felt very jittery,’ Corridor stated. 

Ross additionally revealed that Floyd had been hospitalized twice in March – on one event as a consequence of a drug overdose that noticed him hospitalized for 5 days. 

Paramedics Seth Bravinder and Derek Smith

Paramedics Seth Bravinder and Derek Smith testified on Thursday because the jury was proven stunning new pictures of EMTs loading Floyd into an ambulance and making an attempt to resuscitate him.

Bravinder and Smith have been requested by the prosecution to clarify what was occurring in graphic video and stills of Floyd being positioned on a stretcher and handled within the ambulance. 

Among the pictures got here from video recorded by witnesses on the scene, whereas others got here from the physique digicam of officer Thomas Lane, who rode with Floyd to the hospital.   

Requested to explain Floyd’s situation, Smith stated: ‘In lay phrases, I assumed he was lifeless,’ because the prosecution confirmed a screengrab of him checking for Floyd’s pulse.  

Video confirmed Smith gesturing to Chauvin to take away his knee from Floyd’s neck so they may put his limp physique on a stretcher. 

In pictures proven throughout Smith’s testimony, Floyd was seen slumped, and together with his mouth bloodied as Smith stated he didn’t have an apparent bodily harm that may clarify his dire situation. 

Smith advised the courtroom that Floyd’s pupils have been ‘giant and dilated’.

Bravinder was requested throughout his testimony what a medic would anticipate to see within the eyes of a affected person who had suffered an opioid overdose. ‘We glance to see if their pupils are actually small, constricted, pinpoint,’ he stated.

However when Nelson countered, asking what methamphetamine – one of many substances present in Floyd’s blood – does to the pupils, Bravinder stated: ‘It dilates them.’

Smith advised the courtroom that he detected a flicker {of electrical} exercise in Floyd’s coronary heart as they sped to the Hennepin County Medical Middle and administered a shock in hopes of restarting a pulse. However, he stated, Floyd remained ‘in his lifeless state’.   

Each Bravinder and Smith testified that they wished to get Floyd into the ambulance rapidly as a result of he was in cardiac arrest.  

Bravinder added: ‘On prime of that there was additionally a crowd of people that have been yelling and in my thoughts we needed to get away from that as a result of working a cardiac arrest takes lot of psychological energy, could be taxing and we wish to try this within the optimum setting …to be in a managed house.’

Bravinder stated he stopped the ambulance en path to the hospital and went into the again to help his associate when Floyd’s cardiac monitor was exhibiting ‘asystole’ – the medical time period for ‘flat-lined’.  

‘It’s not a superb signal,’ Bravinder stated. ‘Principally simply because your coronary heart isn’t doing something at that second. There’s not — it’s not pumping blood. So it’s not — it’s not a superb signal for a superb consequence.’ 

Requested if it was essential to begin resuscitation efforts as quickly as a pulse was misplaced, Bravinder stated: ‘Sure, as quickly as potential.’ 

‘The longer a affected person goes with out receiving resuscitation the much less doubtless it’s that resuscitation will likely be profitable.’ 

Cross-examined by Nelson, Bravinder confirmed he had personally been referred to as out to emergencies involving drug overdoses and that police have been referred to as to such instances as a matter after all.

Nelson requested: ‘Is that as a result of generally when individuals are handled for an overdose and so they come spherical they grow to be aggressive and violent?’

Bravinder responded: ‘Sure.’ 

Minneapolis Hearth Division Captain Jeremy Norton 

Minneapolis Hearth Division Captain Jeremy Norton testified on April 1 concerning the preliminary confusion that noticed their fireplace rig arrive at Cup Meals to help paramedics solely to search out that the ambulance had pulled off the scene and was treating Floyd just a few blocks away.

He defined that that they had obtained little or no data past receiving a name out to Cup Meals which was elevated from code 2 (non-emergent), to code 3, (lights and sirens en route).

In line with Norton the one data he had was that the affected person had sustained ‘a mouth harm’.

On arrival on the retailer Norton discovered ‘folks upset’ and looked for a affected person.

Norton stated: ‘I used to be on the lookout for a affected person. The decision was complicated as a result of I didn’t have lots of data so was primarily trying on the ground for somebody.’

The hearth rig in the end joined the ambulance crew at thirty sixth and Park Avenue, two blocks away.

By the point he noticed Floyd he was, he stated: ‘Face up on the stretcher. He had an advance airway in an he had the Lucas compression system in place and dealing.’

Norton cleared Lane out of the ambulance and took over makes an attempt to resuscitate Floyd who was, he stated, ‘to all intents and functions lifeless’. 

Minneapolis Police Division Sergeant David Pleoger

David Pleoger, who lately retired as a sergeant with the Minneapolis Police Division and was Chauvin’s supervisor, testified on April 1.

The jury heard new audio of Chauvin talking with Pleoger moments after Floyd’s dying, saying: ‘I used to be simply going to name you come out to our scene we needed to maintain a man down he was going loopy, wouldn’t go at the back of the squad.’

Pleoger stated that Chauvin didn’t inform him that he had utilized his knee to Floyd’s neck or that he had held him down for any size of time.

‘I consider he advised me he’d grow to be combative he talked about he’d injured both his nostril of his mouth and ultimately having struggled with him,’ Pleoger recalled. ‘He stated he’d suffered a medical emergency and an ambulance was referred to as.’ 

 As supervising shift sergeant, Pleoger was tasked with investigating any use of pressure incidents that occurred throughout his shift – 3pm to 1am.

Describing the decision he’d obtained from 911 dispatcher Jenna Scurry, Pleoger stated: ‘She referred to as to say she didn’t wish to be a snitch however she had seen one thing whereas viewing a digicam that she thought was regarding.’

Pleoger had not obtained a name from Chauvin at the moment and initially advised Scurry that what she noticed ‘may not rely’.

In line with Minneapolis Police Division coverage officers are required to report use of pressure incidents beneath sure circumstances however not if it’s a ‘take down’, which Pleoger – who had not been referred to as by any of the officers on the scene – initially assumed was the case.

The jury was proven footage from Pleoger’s physique digicam by which officers Chauvin, Thao, Kueng and Lane could possibly be standing close to the location of the place they took down Floyd. 

Pleoger instructed Chauvin to establish and converse with witnesses, to which the officer replied: ‘We are able to attempt however they’re fairly hostile.’

Extra video confirmed Pleoger arriving on the hospital the place Floyd was pronounced lifeless, by which Chauvin seemed to be wringing his palms.     

Requested if he had an opinion as to when Chauvin’s restraint ought to have ended, Pleoger responded: ‘Sure [it should have ended] when Mr Floyd was not providing up any resistance.’   

MPD Sergeant Jon Edwards

Sgt. Jon Edwards, who was referred to as to safe the scene within the aftermath, testified that two of the officers concerned have been nonetheless on the web site when he arrived and that he was ordered to take away the crime scene tape simply hours after his dying was confirmed.  

Edwards stated he encountered Lane and Kueng on the scene when he arrived and he instructed them to activate their physique cameras.   

Edwards stated: ‘I requested them to relax out as a result of I knew from Sergeant Pleoger that he had a few escort sergeants coming down to move them to interview room 100.’  

Edwards advised jurors that at roughly 10.13pm information got here by means of that Floyd had died and the state of affairs was confirmed as a essential incident. By then murder was on the scene and Lane and Kueng have been transported to Metropolis Corridor to be interviewed. 

Edwards testified that he was then ordered to take away the crime scene tape he had earlier put up at about 3.30am. 

MPD Lt Richard Zimmerman 

Richard Zimmerman, the pinnacle of the Minneapolis Police Division’s murder division, advised jurors that Chauvin’s use of pressure in arresting Floyd was ‘completely pointless’ as a result of a handcuffed particular person doesn’t pose a risk and kneeling on somebody’s neck can ‘kill them’.

Zimmerman, who responded to the crime scene after Floyd’s lethal arrest, testified that he had watched a number of movies exhibiting the second the officer knelt on the black man’s neck after handcuffing him. 

Having watched the movies, Zimmerman was clear: ‘Pulling him right down to the bottom face down and placing your knee on his neck for that period of time is simply uncalled for.’ 

He added that when Floyd was handcuffed, he noticed ‘no cause why the officers felt they have been in peril and that’s what they must really feel to make use of that degree of pressure.’ 

Zimmerman advised jurors that kneeling on the neck of somebody who’s handcuffed and within the inclined place is ‘top-tier, lethal’ pressure and shouldn’t be used. ‘In case your knee is on an individual’s neck, that may kill him,’ he stated. 

Requested by prosecutors whether or not a handcuffed particular person was a decreased risk, Zimmerman stated: ‘As soon as an individual is cuffed, the risk degree goes down all the way in which. They’re cuffed, how can they actually damage you. 

‘You getting injured is approach down. You might have some man attempt to kick you or one thing, however you possibly can transfer out of the way in which. That particular person is handcuffed, , so the risk degree is simply not there.’ 

Zimmerman, who’s skilled yearly in the usage of pressure, advised jurors he had by no means been skilled to ‘kneel on the neck of anyone who’s cuffed and within the inclined place’.  

‘When you safe or handcuff an individual it is advisable get them out of the inclined place as quickly as potential as a result of it restricts their respiration,’ he stated, including that having your palms cuffed behind your again ‘stretches the muscle groups again by means of your chest and makes it harder to breathe’.  

Dr Bradford Langenfeld 

Dr Bradford Langenfeld, the medic on the Hennepin County Medical Middle who pronounced Floyd lifeless, advised jurors on April 5 that he believed the reason for dying final Could 25 was asphyxia.

He advised the courtroom, ‘Any period of time {that a} affected person spends in cardiac arrest with out CPR markedly decreases the possibilities of survival’ earlier than explaining that these possibilities dropped by 10 to fifteen p.c with every passing minute.

There was nothing within the paramedics’ stories, he stated, to recommend that they have been involved that Floyd had both suffered a coronary heart assault or drug overdose.  

Dr Langenfeld additionally advised how paramedics had fought to revive Floyd for half-hour by the point he arrived in his ward however that regardless of their efforts he was in cardiac arrest and save for infrequent Pulseless Electrical Exercise (PEA) – exercise within the coronary heart not robust sufficient to determine a pulse – he flat-lined.

The medic couldn’t recall whether or not or not Floyd was nonetheless cuffed on arrival however he did bear in mind seeing indentations from {the handcuffs} on his wrists.  

Dr Langenfeld stated he had thought of a bunch of potential causes for Floyd’s cardiac arrest and concluded that hypoxia – oxygen deficiency or asphyxia– was almost certainly, he stated ‘primarily based on the knowledge that I had.’

He declared Floyd lifeless after half-hour within the hospital, by which era he had been and not using a pulse for near an hour.

Talking softly and soberly he recalled, ‘Within the absence of any obvious reversable trigger, [I felt that] the chance of any significant consequence was far beneath 1 p.c and we’d not be capable of resuscitate Mr Floyd, so I then pronounced him lifeless.’ 

The court also heard from Dr. Bradford Langenfeld Monday, pictured, the medic at the Hennepin County Medical Center who pronounced Floyd dead

The courtroom additionally heard from Dr. Bradford Langenfeld Monday, pictured, the medic on the Hennepin County Medical Middle who pronounced Floyd lifeless

Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo 

Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo advised jurors that Chauvin ‘completely didn’t’ comply with police coverage on de-escalation or use of pressure when he pressed his knee into Floyd’s neck for 9 minutes and 29 seconds.

In explosive testimony on April 5, Arradondo stated Chauvin’s use of pressure ‘completely’ violated the division’s coverage and perception in ‘the sanctity of life,’ and that the stress he used was opposite to all departmental teachings.

He stated: ‘As soon as Mr Floyd had stopped resisting and definitely as soon as he was in misery and making an attempt to verbalize that, that ought to have stopped.

‘As soon as there was not any resistance and clearly when Mr Floyd was not responsive and even immobile to proceed to use that degree of pressure to an individual proned out, handcuffed behind their again that under no circumstances form or type is by coverage, a part of our coaching, actually not a part of our ethics or values.’

Proven a nonetheless picture taken from the bystander video Arradondo stated: ‘After I take a look at the facial features of Mr Floyd that doesn’t seem in any approach form or type that that’s ight to reasonable stress [as per policy].

‘That motion shouldn’t be de-escalation and after we discuss concerning the framework of our sanctity of life and principals and values that we now have that motion goes opposite.’ 

Arradondo, Minneapolis’s first black police chief, additionally advised the courtroom that he agreed the Chauvin had violated coverage by failing to supply any medical help to the clearly struggling Floyd. He fired Chauvin and three different officers the day after Mr Floyd’s dying on Could 25 final 12 months and in June referred to as it ‘homicide’.  

In addition to his clear condemnation of the actions he described as violating coverage, Arradondo advised the courtroom that Floyd’s alleged crime – passing a faux $20 invoice at Cup Meals retailer – didn’t rise to the extent of violent crime that demanded use of pressure or a custodial arrest. 

Inspector Katie Blackwell

Inspector Katie Blackwell, former commander of the Minneapolis police division’s coaching division, took the stand on April 5.   

She stated that she has identified Chauvin for near twenty years having first served as a neighborhood officer with him. And she or he herself appointed Chauvin, who was by far probably the most senior officer on the scene Could 25, to the position of Discipline Coaching Officer, accountable for coaching and mentoring new recruits.

However when proven a picture of Chauvin, together with his knee on Floyd’s neck, Blackwell was damning. She stated, ‘I don’t know what sort of improvised place that’s.’

In line with Blackwell officers are taught to make use of one or two arms, not knees, for neck restraints and to continuously reassess the state of affairs.

She additionally stated that ‘positional asphyxia’ was an idea identified to her for so long as she had been an officer – roughly the identical time frame that Chauvin has served.

She echoed testimony already heard by the jury concerning the hazards of conserving an individual within the inclined place – one by which they don’t seem to be in a position to adequately breath.

For that cause, she stated, officers are taught to place suspects on their aspect, within the side-recovery place or sitting upright ‘as quickly as is feasible.’ 

MPD Inspector Katie Blackwell also gave evidence Monday. She told jurors about the training officers recieve

MPD Inspector Katie Blackwell additionally gave proof Monday. She advised jurors concerning the coaching officers recieve

Ker Wang, Disaster Coaching Coordinator 

On April 6 the courtroom heard from Sergeant Ker Wang, 49, Disaster Coaching Coordinator with the MPD and the person who wrote vital parts of that coaching.

He stated that he acknowledged Chauvin’s identify, not as a result of he knew him personally, however from coaching.

The courtroom heard that Chauvin took half in a 40-hour disaster coaching course in 2018 – although this was not a course by which Wang had personally instructed him.

Wang described a ‘disaster’ as something that took a person ‘past their coping mechanisms’ and stated that the first aim of any intervention was to ‘de-escalate’ and restore the state of affairs to a pre-crisis degree.

Steve Schleicher requested Wang to speak the jury by means of the Crucial Resolution Making Mannequin –  a graphic of 5 spheres round a central sphere. 

Wang, who launched the mannequin to MPD coaching in 2018, defined how the outer spheres which contained the subject headings: Data Gathering, Risk/Danger Evaluation, Authority to Act, Targets and Actions, Overview & Re-Assess linked to the ‘key pillars of procedural justice’ expressed within the centre ‘Voice Neutrality Respect Belief.’

The mannequin could possibly be learn and enacted in any path, as officers reply to disaster in a state of flux and fixed reassessment.

He stated that each officer may apply this mannequin, ‘like reminiscence’ and in doing so ‘can decelerate time,’ in a disaster state of affairs.

He stated, ‘I consider on this mannequin as a result of it really works.’

When Nelson cross-examined the witness he sought to widen the main focus from Chauvin’s evaluation of and actions in the direction of Floyd to soak up the context of the group – the half that they performed in occasions and the extent to which their understanding of them was restricted.

He identified that an officer needed to take into account ‘the totality of the circumstances,’ which ‘is extra than simply the way you react to the particular person being arrested.’

Wang agreed with Nelson’s assertion that this included, ‘citizen bystanders, what to do when a citizen bystander begins filming you, tips on how to establish when a citizen constitutes a threat.’

The mannequin was, Nelson asserted, ‘a really dynamic, ever-changing factor primarily based on the knowledge that involves the officers in actual time.’

A lot of that could be invisible to the onlookers, he stated – akin to tactical pondering, figuring out that medical assistance is on the way in which, contemplating officer security.

Nelson then steered towards a presentation of Chauvin’s conduct and look as textbook.

Referencing coaching he stated, ‘An officer ought to seem assured, they need to be capable of attempt to keep calm, they need to attempt converse slowly and softly, they need to keep away from staring or eye-contact…’ Wang agreed.

They need to, he stated, in all respects try and ‘create time and distance.,’ appearing solely when it was ‘protected and possible’ to take action. 

Lieutenant Johnny Mercil 

Minneapolis Police Division’s use of pressure skilled and the person in command of officer coaching advised jurors on April 6 that Chauvin’s knee on Floyd’s neck shouldn’t be, and by no means has been, an MPD skilled neck restraint.

Requested by prosecutor Steve Schleicher if such a degree of restraint can be licensed when a topic is handcuffed Lieutenant Johnny Mercil replied, ‘I might say no.’ 

Mercil additionally advised the courtroom that officers have been taught to make use of the minimal quantity of pressure wanted to detain somebody. 

Requested about leg neck restraints Mercil defined that, whereas not taught to officers, they have been one thing that could be proven to younger cadets. However they’d not appear to be the restraint carried out by Chauvin on Could 25.  

As Schleicher walked him by means of the coaching and ideas in MPD’s Use of Power Mercil advised the courtroom that officers will not be taught to make use of leg neck restraints and by no means have been.

Mercil was responding to an image of Chauvin together with his knee pressed into Floyd’s neck proven to him in courtroom.

In line with Mercil officers are taught tips on how to ship acutely aware and unconscious neck restraints with their arms and solely beneath very restricted circumstances when the extent of resistance and risk would make such a measure proportional. 

MPD medical assist coordinator Nicole MacKenzie

Nicole MacKenzie, Minneapolis police medical assist coordinator, testified  that it’s ‘very tough to deal with a affected person in case you don’t really feel protected’, arguing a loud crowd may have made it onerous for officers to listen to Floyd struggling to breathe.

She advised jurors on April 6 that treating an individual beneath the eyes of a loud crowd was ‘extremely tough.’ 

MacKenzie stated: ‘It would sound unsuitable however bystanders do generally assault EMS crews so generally simply getting out of the state of affairs is one of the simplest ways to diffuse it.’ 

‘It’s extremely tough [to treat under those circumstances] since you’re making an attempt to be heads down on a affected person [but] it’s very tough to deal with the affected person in case you don’t really feel protected round you.’ 

MacKenzie additionally stated Floyd may have displayed ‘super-human energy’ due do ‘Excited Delirium’ introduced on by the consumption of the illicit drug speedball.

Explaining this potential side-effect of taking the illicit drug MacKenzie stated, ‘The particular person could be experiencing elevated physique temperature, the center charge could be extraordinarily elevated and insensitive to ache. Since you don’t actually have that ache/compliance edge that may usually management anyone’s conduct.

‘Any individual experiencing this might need what we’d name super-human energy, lifting issues they wouldn’t usually be capable of raise, breaking issues.’

Certainly one of different officers on the scene, Thomas Lane, stated he was ‘nervous about excited delirium’ and suggesting rolling Floyd on his aspect.  

The prosecution established that Chauvin had undergone coaching in CPR and AED in addition to different first help earlier than MacKenzie advised the jury that skilled officers should present medical help when vital.

It was not sufficient, she stated, for an officer to easily name for an ambulance and wait when in a ‘essential state of affairs’.

She talked the jury by means of the essential steps by which officers are skilled to determine responsiveness and – if no response is forthcoming – to test for respiration and a pulse earlier than commencing chest compressions.

Requested if it was true to say that if an individual can discuss they will breathe, MacKenzie stated, ‘No sir, anyone could be in respiratory misery and nonetheless be capable of verbalize it.’

However beneath cross-examination MacKenzie agreed that the insurance policies on rendering emergency medical help have been ‘considerably certified or contingent on what was happening on the scene on the time.’

Put merely the scene needed to be protected, she accepted, earlier than an officer ought to flip their attentions to first help or CPR.

Nelson centered once more on the scene. Portray the image of a busy street and unstable, vocal crowd he requested if it could be potential for an officer to confuse the gasps of ‘agonal’ ineffective ‘respiration’ with efficient respiration and if this error can be extra doubtless, ‘when there’s lots of noise and commotion.’

MacKenzie agreed on each factors. 

Use-of-force skilled Jody Stiger  

Derek Chauvin’s use of pressure was ‘extreme’, in response to Jody Stiger, a Los Angeles police sergeant who gave testimony because the state’s use-of-force skilled on April 6. 

Stiger advised the courtroom that he has served in a few of the most harmful locations and a few of the most harmful beats – Skid Row, gangs, narcotics – each in uniform and undercover and on LAPD’s Use of Power Board, as a peer reviewer of excessive profile makes use of of pressure.

Stiger was additionally a techniques teacher of six years and has travelled nationally in his capability as an help to the Inspector Normal – an unbiased oversight entity in LAPD – consulting with police forces throughout the nation to determine constant requirements and coaching nationwide.

He has performed 2500 use of pressure critiques together with use of lethal pressure.

Stiger advised the jury that he had reviewed all the state’s supplies– body-worn cameras, cell and pole-camera video footage, stories and MPD manuals and coaching supplies. He advised the courtroom that he additionally took into consideration authorized requirements, the extent of the offense and the particular person’s actions.

Requested about Floyd’s crime – making an attempt to move a faux $20 invoice – he stated, ‘Sometimes you wouldn’t even anticipate to make use of any pressure.’

He stated officers have been initially justified of their use of pressure as a result of Floyd was ‘actively resisting’ however stated ‘as soon as he was positioned within the inclined place on the bottom he slowly ceased his resistance and at that time the ex-officers ought to have slowed down or backed off their pressure as effectively.’

As an alternative, he famous, ‘They continued the pressure that they have been using from the time once they put him on the bottom.’

Stiger advised the courtroom that the officers may have continued making an attempt to speak to Floyd and famous that Kueng had already established some type of rapport.

However regardless of this he stated that that they had not behaved unreasonably of their efforts to get a struggling Floyd into the again of the squad automobile.

He recalled, ‘Mr Floyd was actively resisting transferring round clearly, making an attempt to get out. He didn’t wish to be there and the officers have been initially making an attempt to position him within the again seat, grabbing the seat belt and issues of that nature and ultimately the choice was made to take away him from the car.’

He stated, ‘They have been pulling him from the motive force aspect, passenger door – the road aspect – pulling on his legs and his arms and as soon as they received him out he form of went on his knees.

‘He was saying he couldn’t breathe, saying he was claustrophobic. Quite a few instances he acknowledged he was afraid, he had had covid and couldn’t breathe and he had nervousness and was claustrophobic.’ 

Jody Stiger, 50, who gave testimony as the state’s Use of Force expert, said Chauvin’s use of force was ‘excessive'

Jody Stiger, 50, who gave testimony because the state’s Use of Power skilled, stated Chauvin’s use of pressure was ‘extreme’

Senior Particular Agent James Reyerson, the Bureau of Felony Apprehension officer 

James Reyerson, the lead investigator in Derek Chauvin’s homicide case on April 7 reversed his testimony concerning George Floyd’s declaration, ‘I ate too many medication’, later clarifying he heard: ‘I ain’t doing no medication’.   

Protection legal professional Eric Nelson had performed the clip to the courtroom from one of many officer’s body-worn cameras on the scene final Could 25.  

Requested if he recalled listening to that Reyerson stated no he didn’t.

After the phase was performed in courtroom, when requested once more if he had heard it he stated, ‘Sure I did.’

However in a shocking about face, when recalled by the prosecution and performed an extended portion of the bodycam footage, Reyerson stated that he now believed Floyd to be saying, ‘I ain’t doing no medication.’ 

Reyerson advised the jury each the patrol automobile Floyd was pulled out of and the automobile he was in have been processed on Could 27, two days after Floyd’s dying, then once more in December 2020 when the prosecution requested a search of the Blue Mercedes SUV earlier than the protection requested to see squad 320 in January.

It was at the moment a half- chewed speedball capsule was discovered bearing Floyd’s DNA and saliva.  

BCA forensic scientist and Lead Crime Scene Investigator McKenzie Anderson 

BCA forensic scientist and Lead Crime Scene Investigator McKenzie Anderson advised the jury on April 7 how she had discovered a crumpled and open packet of Suboxone – a medicine given to adults with an opioid dependancy – within the driver’s seat footwell of the Mercedes Floyd had arrived in, in addition to an unopened packet on the seat.

She additionally advised them about two spherical white tablets discovered within the middle console of the automobile. Jurors have been proven footage of all of those findings.

Anderson and her colleagues had not discovered the tablets or containers on an preliminary search of the Mercedes on Could 27 when she photographed the inside and searched with little sense of what she could be on the lookout for.

The automobile was searched once more on the request of the Lawyer Normal’s workplace December 9 when the tablets and $20 payments stuffed between the passenger seat and middle consol. 

Anderson advised jurors that she ‘didn’t give any forensic significance’ to the small white capsule clearly seen on the ground on the passenger aspect of the car’s again seat within the first set of images.

She defined that she had been on the lookout for blood or one thing to do with faux payments.

The potential significance was instantly noticed by the protection who requested a second search of the automobile having seen the half-chewed capsule in footage.

On a second search Anderson discovered the white capsule in addition to a number of different small irregular formed white objects that might, she stated, have been components of a capsule.

There have been no seen markings on both the capsule or the fragments, all of which, she stated had a tough texture and irregular form.

There was one fragment, caught to the again seat and reddish-brown in shade, that, she stated, appeared ‘per the opposite items,’ apart from the colour distinction.

Forensic testing discovered Floyd’s DNA in saliva left on the half-chewed capsule which was discovered to be a ‘speedball’ or compound of methamphetamine and fentanyl when despatched to drug chemistry division.

Forensic scientist Breahna Giles  

BCA’s Breahna Giles was the forensic scientist tasked with analyzing the glass pipe and tablets discovered within the Mercedes.

On April 7 she testified that she discovered traces of THC – the psychoactive element present in marijuana – in residue scraped from the pipe and decided the tablets, which had pharmaceutical markings, to be a compound of Oxycodone and Acetaminophen.

She additionally examined the pill and fragments discovered at the back of squad 320 and located the partial white capsule to be methamphetamine in addition to figuring out methamphetamine within the fragments discovered.

Below cross-examination Giles stated that there was the presence of different substances however not sufficient to make a optimistic dedication of its nature.

Requested by Nelson, ‘However that was fentanyl?’ she stated she may neither affirm nor deny its presence. Eleven nanograms of Fentanyl was present in Floyd’s bloodstream. 

BCA’s Breahna Giles was the forensic scientist tasked with analyzing the glass pipe and pills found in the Mercedes. She found traces of THC – the psychoactive component found in marijuana – in residue scraped from the pipe and determined the pills, which had pharmaceutical markings, to be a compound of Oxycodone and Acetamenophin

BCA’s Breahna Giles was the forensic scientist tasked with analyzing the glass pipe and tablets discovered within the Mercedes. She discovered traces of THC – the psychoactive element present in marijuana – in residue scraped from the pipe and decided the tablets, which had pharmaceutical markings, to be a compound of Oxycodone and Acetamenophin

Forensic chemist Susan Neith

Forensic chemist Susan Neith was the final witness on April 7. She additionally examined the tablets from each automobiles and advised the jury that she discovered hint ranges of fentanyl and methamphetamine within the tablets taken from the again of the squad automobile.

She put the degrees of fentanyl at lower than 1 p.c the quantity she stated she would anticipate finding in road fentanyl. However put the degrees of methamphetamine at between 1 and a pair of.9percent which she stated was a lot decrease in her expertise than that present in road medication which she would anticipate to return in at 80 to 90 p.c.   

Forensic chemist Susan Neith was the last witness of the day. She also tested the pills from both vehicles and told the jury that she found trace levels of fentanyl and methamphetamine in the pills taken from the back of the squad car

Forensic chemist Susan Neith was the final witness of the day. She additionally examined the tablets from each automobiles and advised the jury that she discovered hint ranges of fentanyl and methamphetamine within the tablets taken from the again of the squad automobile

Pulmonology skilled Dr Martin Tobin

Dr Martin Tobin, a specialist on the Edward Hines, Jr. VA Hospital and Loyola College’s medical faculty in Chicago, testified he believed Floyd’s explanation for dying was as a consequence of an absence of oxygen that broken his mind and induced his coronary heart to cease. 

Throughout his hours-long testimony on April 8, he stated there have been a number of components that he stated made it tough for Floyd to breathe, past Chauvin’s knee on his neck: Officers lifting up on his handcuffs, the onerous road, mendacity face down, his turned head and a knee on his again.

‘A wholesome particular person subjected to what Mr. Floyd was subjected to would have died on account of what he was subjected to,’ Dr Tobin stated.

Tobin, analyzing a graphic presentation of the three officers holding down Floyd for what prosecutors say was virtually 9 1/2 minutes, testified that Chauvin’s knee was ‘nearly on the neck’ for greater than 90% of the time by his estimate. 

Chauvin additionally saved his knee on Floyd’s neck for 3.02 minutes after Floyd had ‘reached the purpose the place there was not one ounce of oxygen left within the physique,’ Tobin stated. 

When requested if Dr Tobin, primarily based on his medical experience, had decided a explanation for dying for Floyd after viewing movies from the scene, he stated: ‘Mr Floyd died from a low degree of oxygen… The reason for low degree of oxygen was shallow respiration. Small breaths that weren’t in a position to carry the air by means of his lungs.  

‘He was being squashed between the 2 sides,’ Dr Tobin stated as he described the place Floyd was in mendacity face down on the bottom with the officers pinning him down.

Dr Tobin advised the courtroom that the affect of the stress of the officers and handcuffs rendered motion so unattainable that Floyd’s left lung was tremendously affected.

‘If you breathe you employ your diaphragm, subsequent factor you recruit is the massive muscle groups within the neck, when these are wasted up then you definately’re counting on these sorts of muscle groups to get air into the proper aspect.’ 

Elsewhere in his testimony, Dr Tobin stated he’d calculated that Floyd’s lung capability was decreased by 43 p.c when Chauvin was pinning him down. 

Forensic toxicologist Dr Daniel Isenschmid

Dr Daniel Isenschmid took the stand on April 8 and advised how he discovered traces of fentanyl and methamphetamine when he examined blood drawn from Floyd on the hospital and urine from his post-mortem. 

He advised the courtroom that though there was a excessive degree of fentanyl in Floyd’s bloodstream – 11ng ml the place a 3ng ml could possibly be deadly – particular person tolerance needed to be taken into consideration. 

The toxicology skilled urged Floyd’s tolerance have been excessive as an everyday consumer. 

He additionally pointed to the presence of norfentanyl – a metabolic of fentanyl. 

Isenschmid stated that he wouldn’t anticipate to see this in a case the place dying had occurred on account of fentanyl overdose as a result of the physique wouldn’t have had an opportunity to metabolize the drug. 

He described the extent of meth in Floyd’s bloodstream – 19ng ml – as not more than he would anticipate finding within the blood of a affected person who had consumed a single legally prescribed dose and his amphetamine was beneath reportable ranges.  

 Forensic skilled Dr William Smock

Dr William Smock took the stand on April 8 and testified that Floyd died from positional asphyxia, which he stated was ‘a flowery approach of claiming he died as a result of he had no oxygen left in his physique’. 

‘When the physique is disadvantaged of oxygen, on this case from stress on this chest and again, he steadily succumbed to decrease and decrease ranges of oxygen till he succumbed and he died,’ he stated. 

Smock stated that he had thought of and dismissed different causes together with the protection’s causes of alternative – fentanyl overdose and excited delirium. 

One after the other he defined the signs of excited delirium – together with extreme sweat, being unaffected by ache and super-human energy – and dismissed them declaring that Floyd was chilly to the contact, complaining of ache from the second he was on the bottom and unable to throw the cops from his again.  

Requested by prosecutors how lots of the 10 acknowledged signs he noticed, Smock answered: ‘Zip.’ 

He discarded fentanyl overdose as a potential explanation for dying as a result of he stated, Floyd was not falling right into a coma, loud night breathing, or slowing down in respiration. 

He was, as an alternative, combating for his life and demonstrating ‘air starvation’ as he struggled to breathe. He pointed to Floyd’s weakening voice as proof that the life was draining from him and acknowledged Floyd’s dying moments in his altering facial expressions and anoxic seizure – when his legs kicked out straight behind him.

Smock defined that since Floyd was a continual drug customers the degrees of narcotics and their metabolites present in his blood stream actually meant little or no. ‘You don’t depend on the extent, you take a look at the affected person,’ he stated.

The protection has pointed to the truth that there was no bruising on Floyd’s neck and throat submit mortem as proof that Chauvin’s knee didn’t dig into him till the life was squeezed out of him.

However Smock, who can be a specialist in strangulation, stated: ‘You could be fatally strangled and died of asphyxia and haven’t any bruising.’ 

Dr William Smock, a forensic medicine expert, told the jury in Derek Chauvin's murder trial on Thursday April 8 that when George Floyd cried out 'I can't breathe' he was exhibiting the desperation of 'air hunger'

Dr William Smock, a forensic drugs skilled, advised the jury in Derek Chauvin’s homicide trial on Thursday April 8 that when George Floyd cried out ‘I can’t breathe’ he was exhibiting the desperation of ‘air starvation’

Forensic pathologist Dr Lindsey Thomas

Forensic pathologist Dr Lindsey Thomas, who works as a medical expert in Reno and Salt Lake Metropolis, testified on April 9 that Floyd died as as results of ‘low oxygen’ or ‘asphyxia.’

Thomas stated that on this case the post-mortem itself didn’t inform her the reason for dying in her investigation however the ‘distinctive’ quantity of documentation by way of movies and information was very important in establishing ‘mechanism’ of dying.

She agreed with Hennepin County Medical Examiner Dr Andrew Baker’s discovering that the reason for dying was ‘cardiopulmonary arrest, complicating regulation enforcement subdual restraint and neck compression’.  

Thomas advised the courtroom that there aren’t any bodily findings in post-mortem that present low oxygen however there are generally findings per a explanation for dying which will end in low oxygen. She gave for example a partial hanging by which an individual could have petechiae, tiny burst blood vessels within the eye.

She stated that she had discovered such supporting indicators in Floyd’s post-mortem. In line with Thomas, ‘Mr Floyd had superficial accidents on his face, shoulders and wrists. What that does is it helps what I noticed within the movies which is that he’s being forcibly restrained and subdued and making an attempt to maneuver right into a place by rubbing his face in opposition to the bottom, pulling in opposition to his handcuffs and by pushing together with his shoulder.

‘And he additionally had some scrapes on his knuckles on his proper hand and once more that was from him pushing making an attempt to get right into a place the place he may breathe.’

She defined: ‘There are actually two components; cardiopulmonary arrest which doesn’t actually present a lot extra data as a result of primarily all of us die when our coronary heart and lungs cease, however as a forensic pathologist I might use it to distinguish from cardiac arrest. This isn’t a sudden cardiac arrest.

‘This can be a dying the place each the center and lungs stopped working and the purpose is that it is because of subdual restraint and compression.’

Thomas concluded: ‘The actions of the regulation enforcement officers led to Mr Floyd’s dying.’

And by that she meant putting him within the inclined place, handcuffing him and kneeling on his again and, particularly, neck.

Hennepin County Chief Medical Examiner Dr Andrew Baker

Hennepin County Chief Medical Examiner Dr Andrew Baker, who carried out Floyd’s post-mortem, took the stand on April 9 and stated that he didn’t discover the reason for dying to be asphyxia or low oxygen ranges and that he didn’t consider that Chauvin’s knee was on Floyd’s neck for ‘the bulk’ of the time.

In a large departure from the prosecution’s rivalry, Baker stated: ‘In my impression from the video it could seem that Mr Chauvin’s knee was totally on the again, on the aspect or the realm in between Mr Floyd’s neck (and again).’

Below cross examination, Baker advised the courtroom that asphyxia was ‘a quite common trigger’ of the deaths that he had seen throughout 2,900 to three,000 autopsies nevertheless it was not the conclusion that he got here to earlier than, or after, having seen the movies of the incident on Could 25, 2020.   

In a startlingly temporary direct questioning by Jerry Blackwell, Baker advised the courtroom that Floyd died as a result of being pinned down on the bottom together with his neck compressed was, ‘simply greater than he may take,’ given his extreme underlying coronary heart illness. 

Requested if, in his opinion, the positioning of Chauvin’s knee would lower off Floyd’s oxygen provide, Baker stated: ‘In my view it could not.’

In his view, he stated: ‘It was the stress of that interplay that tipped him over the sting given his underlying coronary heart illness and his toxicological standing.’

The physician advised the courtroom that he had intentionally prevented all video footage till after he performed the post-mortem as a result of he didn’t wish to introduce any ‘bias’ that may, ‘lead [his] examination down any specific path’.

In his conclusion Floyd’s dying occurred ‘within the context’ of regulation enforcement subdual, restraint and neck compression however he didn’t give the reason for dying as set out by others.

Heart specialist Dr Jonathan Wealthy 

Dr Jonathan Wealthy, a heart specialist at Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago, took the stand on April 12 and stated Floyd would nonetheless be alive if it weren’t for Chauvin’s restraint as he asserted that the black man didn’t have coronary heart illness and his tolerance for fentanyl was so excessive that the drug performed no position in his dying. 

‘On this case Mr George Floyd died from a cardiopulmonary arrest,’ Wealthy advised the jury. ‘It was brought on by low oxygen and people low oxygen ranges have been produced by the inclined restraint and positional asphyxia that he was subjected to.’

Wealthy refuted key arguments from the protection when he stated he had thought of and discounted Floyd’s explanation for dying as having originated from the center itself or being the results of an overdose.

‘After reviewing all the details I can state with a excessive diploma of medical certainty that George Floyd didn’t die from a main cardiac occasion and he didn’t die from a drug overdose,’ he stated.

As an alternative, he stated Floyd ‘was simply unable utilizing all of his muscle groups, his accent muscle groups, he was unable [to breathe] due to the place he was subjected to’.

‘The guts thus didn’t have sufficient oxygen both which implies the whole physique didn’t have sufficient oxygen,’ he stated.

Requested whether or not he thought Floyd can be alive in the present day have been it not for ‘Mr Chauvin’s subdual and restraint of 9 minutes and 29 seconds on the bottom’, Wealthy stated: ‘To a excessive diploma of medical certainty, he would have lived.’

Wealthy advised the courtroom that, in his view: ‘Mr George Floyd’s dying was completely preventable.’

He stated the very first thing that might’ve been achieved to forestall Floyd’s dying would have been to easily not place him within the inclined place in any respect.

After that occurred, Wealthy stated Floyd ought to have been moved into the aspect restoration place when his complaints of not having the ability to breathe turned audibly weaker.

Whereas Floyd had hypertension which may, Wealthy stated, grow to be an issue over time if not handled, he advised the jury: ‘Each indicator is that Mr Floyd had an exceptionally robust coronary heart as a result of he may generate pressures at some factors upwards of 200.’

Wealthy defined that an issue with a few of the sufferers he sees who’re struggling coronary heart failure is that they can not generate pressures of even 80 as a prime quantity. Regular blood stress is round 120/80.

As medical doctors Martin Tobin, William Smock and Lindsey Thomas had earlier than him, Wealthy asserted that the deterioration he noticed in Floyd was not the sudden lack of consciousness of a main cardiac occasion, however the sluggish seeping approach of 1 disadvantaged of oxygen for a protracted time frame.

‘In the midst of the restraint I used to be seeking to see if his deterioration occurred quickly,’ Wealthy stated. ‘A main cardiac occasion, the commonest arrhythmia is ventricular fibrillation, when that occurs the person will look comparatively okay after which they are going to instantly grow to be unconscious.

‘However if the trigger is from one thing else – for instance low oxygen ranges – you’ll sometimes see that occuring extra steadily and slowly.

‘I may see his speech beginning to grow to be much less forceful, his muscle actions changing into weaker till ultimately his speech and muscle actions have been absent. After which after all he was in a PEA (Pulseless Electrical Exercise) cardiopulmonary arrest.’

Turning to the post-mortem report, Wealthy stated that he had discovered no proof of the type of tell-tale harm to the center {that a} coronary heart assault would have left behind.

And whereas he referred to as Floyd’s arterial illness ‘notable’, he stated it was not one thing that stunned him as a result of it’s so widespread. What was most important, he stated, was that Floyd’s arteries have been solely partially blocked, not utterly occluded – an indication of {that a} coronary heart assault had occurred.

Wealthy discounted a fentanyl or methamphetamine overdose saying that he felt the latter ‘performed no substantive position in any respect’.

He stated from what he had seen, Floyd’s conduct – his talkativeness, alertness, skill to stroll – was the other of what an individual would witness in an opiate overdose.

On cross examination, Nelson tried to take the sting out of Wealthy’s testimony that Floyd can be alive in the present day have been it not for Chauvin’s actions.

Flipping the result again on Floyd, Nelson requested: ‘If Mr Floyd had simply received into the seat of the squad automobile do you assume he would have survived?’ 

Wealthy tip-toed into his reply, denying Nelson the straight sure or no that he sought.

‘Had he not been restrained in the way in which by which he was, I believe he would have survived that day. I believe he would have gone residence had he not been subjected to the inclined place that he was,’ he stated.

‘So in different phrases,’ Nelson summed up for the courtroom. ‘If he had simply gotten into the squad automobile.’ 

Philonise Floyd, George Floyd’s youthful brother 

Floyd’s youthful brother Philonise Floyd broke down in tears at trial on April 12 because the courtroom was proven footage of his slain sibling – as a younger boy, sleeping in his smiling mom’s arms, as an adolescent finding out, pen in hand and as a younger athlete who received a basketball scholarship to South Florida earlier than transferring to Gainesville, Texas, the place he performed soccer, and smiling together with his seven-year-old daughter Gianna in his arms. 

Philonise, 39, recalled his oldest brother as a ‘chief,’ who organized his youthful siblings and made positive that they had their faculty uniform every morning and a snack earlier than faculty. He stated that folks of their neighborhood would go to church simply because they noticed that Floyd was there.

He stated that his older brother at all times wished to be taller and to be the most effective, measuring himself as he grew and throwing a whole bunch of hoops in a bid to be the ‘greatest’ at basketball.

Philonise recalled taking part in video video games and catch with Floyd rising up earlier than telling the courtroom with a smile that his brother ‘couldn’t boil water’ however would make the most effective ‘banana and mayonnaise and syrup sandwiches’. 

Towards the tip of his temporary testimony, he advised how damaged Floyd was by his mom’s dying, saying that on the funeral, ‘George simply sat there on the casket saying: “Mamma” time and again.

‘He was simply kissing her. He didn’t wish to depart the casket.’ 

George Floyd's brother Philonise Floyd testified at Derek Chauvin's murder trial on Monday afternoon (pictured)

George Floyd’s brother Philonise Floyd testified at Derek Chauvin’s homicide trial on Monday afternoon (pictured)

Use-of-force skilled Seth Stoughton 

The prosecution’s last witness, use-of-force skilled Seth Stoughton, testified on April 12 that Floyd didn’t pose a risk throughout his deadly arrest and stated officers ought to have relented after the handcuffed black man pleaded: ‘I can’t breathe’ 27 instances.  

Stoughton, a former cop turned regulation professor, was requested to supply his evaluation of physique digicam video of Floyd pinned to the bottom by Chauvin and two different officers on Could 25 in Minneapolis. 

In a damning sequence prosecutor Steve Schleicher requested: ‘Did Mr Floyd current any risk of escape? Did he current any risk to bodily property? Did he current any risk to the bodily security of officers or anybody else?’

Time and again Stoughton answered: ‘No he didn’t.’

Requested: ‘Did he current any type of risk in any respect?’ Stoughton once more stated: ‘No he didn’t.’

Stoughton concluded: ‘No cheap officers would have believed that was an applicable, acceptable or cheap use of pressure.’

Stoughton stated it was ‘by no means’ vital or cheap to position Floyd in a inclined place, including: ‘It’s clear from the variety of officers the truth that he’s handcuffed and has been searched he doesn’t current any risk of hurt, his actions don’t recommend he’s any risk of escape.’ 

‘Given the vary of options obtainable to officers it’s simply not applicable to inclined somebody once they’re already compliant,’ Stoughton stated. 

Stoughton went on to attract a distinction between ‘risk’ and ‘threat’.

He defined: ‘Risk shouldn’t be some summary notion. It’s particular; risk “of” one thing. Risk exists when the person has the bodily skill, the chance and obvious intention to trigger no matter hurt we’re envisaging.

‘That’s how we establish risk. Danger you possibly can consider as a possible risk. Danger is one thing officers can use techniques and communications to deal with. The aim is to forestall threat changing into risk and that risk to show into regardless of the obvious hurt supposed is.’

He added: ‘Whereas risk can justify use of pressure, threat can’t.’

Stoughton stated that he thought of a use of pressure evaluate as ‘form of a balancing of harms. The thought is an officer can’t use extra pressure than the state of affairs justifies.

‘The foreseeable results can’t be disproportionate to the perceived risk.’

That’s precisely what he concluded that they had been on Could 25, 2020.

Stoughton advised the courtroom: ‘Earlier than he fell silent Mr Floyd stated: “I can’t breathe” by my rely at the least 27 instances. If anyone is describing that they’re in misery then officers need to take that into consideration.’

‘The officers are sustaining Mr Floyd in that inclined place however there are some indicators that the foreseeable results are occurring and that he’s experiencing positional asphyxia.

‘Not solely does he point out it with the phrases he’s utilizing however [as the restraint continues] his voice is slower and thicker.’

In line with Stoughton a ‘cheap officer’ would ‘completely’ have been conscious of Floyd’s complaints and in reality Chauvin could be heard acknowledging each them and, later, Officer J Alexander Kueng telling him that he couldn’t discover a pulse.

Returning to his risk evaluation as a significant a part of establishing the reasonableness of pressure used Stoughton stated: ‘Any individual who doesn’t have a pulse doesn’t current a risk in any approach.’ 

Stoughton additionally dismissed the notion that the group posed any credible risk or could possibly be perceived as such by a ‘cheap officer’.

He identified that the primary detrimental remark from the group got here greater than three minutes into the restraint and he famous Officer Tou Thao’s flippant remark: ‘Because of this you don’t do medication, children’ as a sign that the officers weren’t really afraid of hassle.

‘That’s related as a result of if you’re involved a few crowd you don’t say issues which are more likely to exacerbate that state of affairs,’ he defined. ‘A remark like: “Because of this you don’t do medication, children,” shouldn’t be rapport constructing.’

After Floyd had been eliminated by paramedics Chauvin returned to his squad automobile and could possibly be heard in a interplay with a bystander.

Paraphrasing what he may recall, Stoughton stated that Chauvin tried to justify his actions by saying, ‘one thing akin to describing Mr Floyd as a fairly large man, presumably intoxicated presumably on medication and that officers wanted to maintain management over him’.

In line with Stoughton: ‘All of these particular person statements are true; Mr Floyd was a bigger particular person and there was ample cause to assume he could have been impaired by alcohol or medication.

‘However an inexpensive officer on this state of affairs would have perceived that they may have maintained management over him with out placing a knee on his neck or conserving him in that place.

‘The sanctity of human life is absolutely the precedence in policing.

On cross examination, Nelson pressed Stoughton: ‘Does the cheap officer determine whether or not they need to be put within the squad automobile or does the suspect determine whether or not they need to be put within the squad automobile…the suspect doesn’t get to dictate I get to sit down on the bottom or within the entrance of the squad automobile?’

Stoughton agreed they didn’t.

Nelson re-iterated Stoughton’s view that the usage of the inclined place was by no means cheap suggesting that ‘cheap minds’ can disagree.

‘On this specific level? No,’ Stoughton countered.  

Stoughton agreed that the usage of pressure is usually not very fairly however that that didn’t essentially imply that it was illegal.

However he added: ‘I don’t assume that’s the case right here.’

DEFENSE

Retired Minneapolis police officer Scott Creighton 

Retired Minneapolis police officer Scott Creighton was the primary witness to take the stand for the protection on Tuesday April 13 because the courtroom watched body-camera footage of Floyd’s arrest on Could 6, 2019.   

In a remarkably temporary direct examination Nelson requested Creighton what he had noticed of Floyd as he approached his car. Creighton advised the jury that Floyd was not responsive and that he needed to ‘bodily attain in [to the car] as a result of I wished to see his palms.’

Within the video Floyd could be heard saying: ‘I don’t wish to be shot’ earlier than Creighton pulled him out of the automobile. 

Below cross examination by Erin Eldridge, Creighton noticed that the state of affairs had ‘escalated actually fast’ as soon as Floyd refused to point out his palms and that he was compelled to tug his gun.

He described Floyd as ‘incoherent’ however in a position to stroll and discuss.

Nelson had hoped to point out the jury that, beneath related circumstances, when approached in a automobile by an officer together with his gun drawn, Floyd quickly ingested medication and pretended to have a medical emergency.  

On re-direct Nelson requested if Creighton had heard his associate instructing Floyd to ‘spit it out’. Creighton stated, he could have achieved. 

Retired Minneapolis Police Officer Scott Creighton (pictured) testified about what he witnessed of Floyd during an arrest on May 6, 2019

Retired Minneapolis Police Officer Scott Creighton (pictured) testified about what he witnessed of Floyd throughout an arrest on Could 6, 2019

Retired paramedic Michelle Moseng 

Retired paramedic Michelle Moseng was the prosecution’s second witness on Tuesday April 13 as Nelson drew out the parallels between Could 6, 2019 and what he contests happened on Could 25, 2020. 

Moseng was referred to as to Floyd’s arrest throughout which he had required medical care.

In line with Moseng, Floyd was agitated and upset and advised her that he had been taking seven to 9 opioids – oxy and Percocet – each twenty minutes all through the day and one other simply earlier than the officer had approached the automobile.

When requested for particulars of her bodily evaluation of Floyd she revealed that she recorded a blood stress of 216 over 160 – so excessive that she beneficial he be taken instantly to hospital.

Floyd advised her, she stated, that he had not been taking his blood stress medicine, ‘for months’.

In an aggressive cross-examination, Eldridge peppered the witness with questions demanding her acknowledgement that Floyd’s blood oxygen, pulse, respiration, coronary heart rhythm and EKG have been all regular.

‘And also you took him to the hospital and he was monitored for 2 hours and he was launched,’ Eldridge stated, to which Moseng answered: ‘Sure.’ 

Michelle Moseng (pictured) was the paramedic called to administer medical aid during Floyd's arrest on May 6, 2019

Michelle Moseng (pictured) was the paramedic referred to as to manage medical help throughout Floyd’s arrest on Could 6, 2019 

George Floyd’s pal Shawanda Hill 

The third witness referred to as by the protection was Shawanda Hill, the girl who was within the automobile with Floyd and his pal Morries Corridor, on Could 25, 2020, after having ran into Floyd in Cup Meals the place he provided to present her a journey residence. 

At instances onerous to listen to and irritable, Hill advised Nelson that Floyd was ‘pleased, regular’ and ‘alert’ when she spoke to him within the retailer.  

However again within the automobile – after she had been on a name together with her daughter – Hill stated she noticed that Floyd had all of a sudden fallen asleep earlier than Cup Meals clerks got here out to confront him about utilizing a counterfeit $20 invoice. 

By then, she stated: ‘He was already sleeping. Once they got here to the automobile and once they got here attempt to wake him up, I attempted to wake him up time and again, he saved, he’d get up, then say one thing, then nodded again off. He did that a few instances.’

Hill went onto relate how she had struggled to get Floyd to focus when the police arrived, telling him: ‘Child that’s the police, open the door, roll down the window.’

Hill stated Floyd was ‘startled’ when Officer Thomas Lane pulled his gun, prompting him to seize on the steering wheel and plead: ‘Please don’t shoot me, please don’t shoot me.’

Choose Cahill spoke to Hill, who had been named in earlier testimony as a heroin supplier, forward of the jury being seated after a short morning break.

He defined to her that the attorneys would possibly ask her whether or not or not she was beneath the affect of medication or alcohol and that, although he didn’t assume the questions would incriminate her and he had instructed the restrict of their scope, she had the proper to seek the advice of and legal professional concerning invoking her Fifth Modification proper.

She stated she didn’t want one and that she was ‘able to go’.  

In his temporary cross-examination Assistant Lawyer Normal Frank Matthew established that, regardless of his sleepiness, Floyd was not in need of breath or complaining of chest pains at any level. 

Minneapolis Park Police Officer Peter Chang 

The fourth witness for the protection was Minneapolis Park Police Officer Peter Chang, who arrived at Cup Meals after officers Thomas Lane and J Alexander Kueng had already confronted Floyd. 

The jury was proven video from Chang’s body-camera, which revealed Floyd’s mates reactions to his arrest for the primary time.   

Chang described a comparatively calm scene on his arrival at Cup Meals the place he noticed Kueng subsequent to Floyd who was seated on the bottom, handcuffed and leaning in opposition to the wall exterior Dragon Wok restaurant. 

Chang advised the courtroom that he had been ‘involved for the officers’ security’ because of the ‘very aggressive crowd’ that gathered exterior Cup Meals on thirty eighth and Chicago as police struggled with and subdued Floyd.

Because the scene in entrance of Cup Meals clearly turns into extra heated, Chang could be seen pacing backward and forward – motion he defined to Nelson as as a consequence of checking on his fellow officers’ security – and repeatedly telling Hill and Corridor to remain put as they agitate to see what’s happening.

He informs them: ‘Proper now they’re grabbing an ambulance in your buddy. He might need coronary heart himself.’

Cautioning each to keep away from the automobile and the scene, he tells Hill: ‘Shawanda you’re not serving to.’

In a really temporary cross-examination Frank established that there had by no means been a ‘code 3’ or emergent name out to the scene at Cup Meals and undercut Chang’s concern for his fellow officers by declaring that he knew there have been 4 officers on scene and that none ever radioed for assist. 

MPD Medical Help Coordinator Nicole MacKenzie 

Minneapolis Police Division Medical Help Coordinator Nicole MacKenzie made her second look on the stand instantly earlier than the courtroom broke for lunch on Tuesday.

When showing as a state witness final week, MacKenzie gave her opinion that treating an individual beneath the eyes of a crowd, hostile or in any other case, ‘is extremely tough’. She additionally advised the courtroom about ‘excited delirium’, saying that it may give an individual, ‘super-human’ energy.

In the present day Nelson centered on the signs of the situation and up to date coaching supplies that, he established, of which Chauvin as a veteran wouldn’t have had information.

In distinction, rookie Lane did and in body-worn digicam footage he could be heard expressing concern that Floyd could also be affected by excited delirium.

MacKenzie defined that Lane would have obtained coaching that included the acronym NOTACRIME of indicators and actions cadets have been skilled to notice and take.

She talked the jury by means of every letter. She stated that an individual could also be Bare, exhibit violence in the direction of Objects, by Robust and unstoppable. The onset could possibly be Acute, the particular person Confused and Resistant in addition to Incoherent, the situation could possibly be as a consequence of Psychological well being points and at all times required an EMS to be referred to as early because it may result in a sudden cardiac arrest.

In one other temporary cross Frank established from MacKenzie that as a medical assist coordinator it was not her job to diagnose circumstances. She agreed she would at all times defer to a paramedic.

Minneapolis Police Department Medical Support Coordinator Nicole MacKenzie made her second appearance on the stand directly before the court broke for lunch on Tuesday

Minneapolis Police Division Medical Help Coordinator Nicole MacKenzie made her second look on the stand instantly earlier than the courtroom broke for lunch on Tuesday

Use-of-force skilled Barry Brodd

Barry Brodd, a former cop and use-of-force skilled who makes a speciality of police and civilian protection instances, testified for Chauvin’s protection on Tuesday April 13 and stated the defendant didn’t use lethal pressure in opposition to Floyd. 

In truth, Brodd argued that Chauvin’s putting the handcuffed black man within the inclined place and kneeling on his neck for 9 minutes and 29 seconds didn’t represent use of pressure in any respect.  

‘It’s a management approach. It doesn’t damage,’ Brodd stated. ‘It’s protected for the officer, protected for the suspect and also you’re utilizing minimal effort to maintain them on the bottom.’ 

Throughout direct examination by Nelson, Brodd stated Chauvin was ‘justified’ and appearing ‘with goal reasonableness’ in his interactions with Floyd.  

He advised the jury that cops ‘don’t need to combat truthful’, explaining that they will use a degree of pressure that’s ‘one up’ from the extent of any resistance. He famous that when coping with suspects who’re beneath the affect of medication, officers can ‘discover themselves in a combat for his or her life in a heartbeat’. 

Brodd additionally leaned in to the protection narrative that Chauvin and his fellow officers felt ‘threatened’ by the gathering crowd. 

Brodd’s assured testimony took a flip when prosecutor Steve Schleicher stepped as much as cross look at him, losing no time in tackling the assertion that conserving Floyd within the inclined place didn’t represent a use of pressure and didn’t damage.

He requested Brodd if he really believed that it’s unlikely that ‘orienting your self on prime of an individual on the pavement with each legs [on top of them] is unlikely to supply ache?’ Brodd conceded that it may. 

Schleicher countered that if that place may produce ache, by Brodd’s logic, it may additionally represent a use of pressure. 

Trying on the all-too-familiar picture of Chauvin kneeling on Floyd’s neck, Brodd was pressured to concede: ‘Proven on this image, that could possibly be use of pressure’ – however argued that Floyd had grown more and more non-compliant. 

Schleicher then confirmed a screengrab of Floyd pinned to the bottom and requested: ‘What a part of this isn’t compliant?’

Refusing to deviate from his narrative Brodd insisted: ‘I see his arm place. A compliant particular person would have each their palms within the small of their again and be resting comfortably.’

The disbelief clear in his voice, Schleicher requested: ‘Did you say resting comfortably?’

‘At the moment when he’s making an attempt to breathe by shoving his shoulder into the pavement,’ Brodd replied.

Pathologist Dr David Fowler  

Dr David Fowler, the previous chief medical expert of Maryland, took the stand on April 14 to share his conclusion that Floyd’s dying ought to have by no means been dominated a murder as a result of there have been too many competing potential causes of dying.

One of many potential causes Fowler offered was Floyd’s publicity to exhaust from the squad automobile he was pinned subsequent to, which the witness stated may have induced a point of carbon monoxide poisoning.

However on cross examination by trial legal professional Jerry Blackwell, Fowler was pressured to confess that he had no concrete proof to assist the carbon monoxide poisoning concept.

Blackwell seized on the truth that Fowler had by no means set eyes on the squad automobile or tried to simulate the circumstances to pattern potential ranges of carbon monoxide in Floyd’s neighborhood.

The prosecutor bluntly challenged: ‘For that matter reducing much more to the chase how do you even know the automobile was on?’

Fowler stated that it was a query he had particularly requested and that he had noticed water dripping from what seems to be a tail pipe.

Blackwell pressed: ‘You simply assumed primarily based on observing one thing dripping from a tail pipe that the automobile was on?’

‘It’s not an assumption,’ Fowler bit again. ‘It’s an analysis primarily based on an indicator that the automobile was working.’

The carbon monoxide level was one among many on which Fowler contradicted the opinions of medical specialists who testified earlier than him.

Blackwell drilled down on these contradictions whereas making an attempt to chip away at Fowler’s credibility, at one level telling him: ‘You’re not a toxicologist..a pulmonologist.. a heart specialist, a physiologist…You don’t deal with sufferers.’

Fowler’s earliest contradiction throughout greater than 5 hours of testimony got here when he shared his conclusion that Floyd died from a ‘sudden cardiac arrhythmia’ as a consequence of his underlying coronary heart illness throughout his restraint by police. That conclusion was refuted by Dr Andrew Baker, the Hennepin County chief medical expert who carried out Floyd’s post-mortem.

Among the many ‘vital contributing circumstances’ that he listed was the presence of fentanyl and methamphetamine, paraganglioma – the adrenalin secreting-tumor that Floyd had – and his publicity to the squad automobile exhaust.

Fowler additionally stated that Floyd had an enlarged coronary heart, which meant he wanted extra oxygen to operate, and that methamphetamine use heightened his threat of cardiac arrhythmia.

Later in his prolonged and technical testimony, Fowler cited a number of research which challenged the notion that the inclined place – by which Floyd was held for 9 minutes and 29 seconds – is inherently harmful.

He additionally referenced research which concluded that it doesn’t matter how a lot an individual weighs if they’re making use of a single knee to a different particular person – and a double knee restraint makes solely a modest distinction.

In line with these research an individual transfers simply 23 p.c of their body weight throughout a double knee restraint. So, Dr Fowler stated, Chauvin – who he considered as making use of a single knee restraint for a lot of the restraint – would have been making use of lower than 30 to 35 kilos of weight to Floyd.

Requested if any of that weight compromised Floyd’s neck constructions, Fowler stated: ‘Not one of the very important constructions.’

‘There was completely no proof of any harm to the pores and skin or deeper constructions of the again or neck,’ he stated, citing images from Floyd’s post-mortem.

In truth, he stated the stress utilized to Floyd was lower than the quantity essential to even bruise him.

PROSECUTION – REBUTTAL 

Pulmonology skilled Dr Martin Tobin 

The state recalled its star medical witness, pulmonologist Dr Martin Tobin, to the stand for its rebuttal on April 15. 

Tobin advised the jury that the protection skilled who testified at size yesterday, Dr David Fowler, was ‘merely unsuitable’ in his conclusions that carbon monoxide performed any position in Floyd’s dying. 

Addressing Fowler’s declare that the degrees of carbon monoxide in Floyd’s blood may have been between 10 and 18 p.c, Tobin stated: ‘I consider it isn’t dependable.’

Tobin began to inform jurors that his view was primarily based on arterial blood gasoline obtained from Floyd in Hennepin County Medical Middle when Nelson objected.

Earlier than the witness stepped up, Choose Cahill warned the state that he would declare a mistrial if Tobin sought to introduce any new proof throughout his rebuttal to Fowler’s testimony.

As an alternative Tobin walked the fantastic line and defined: ‘[Floyd] had an arterial blood gasoline obtained, in order that’s sticking a needle into the artery and also you measure quite a lot of completely different gadgets just like the stress of oxygen, carbon dioxide, acid, and the oxygen saturation and that’s how a lot of the hemoglobin the protein within the blood that carries the oxygen.’

Requested for Floyd’s oxygen saturation ranges, Tobin advised the courtroom: ‘It was 98 p.c saturated with oxygen once they measured it at Hennepin County Medical Middle and that was 9.16pm.’

As for what, if something, that tells about Floyd’s carbon monoxide ranges, Tobin stated: ‘If hemoglobin is saturated at 98 p.c, all there was for every part else was two p.c.

‘The utmost quantity [of carbon monoxide] was two p.c, it could possibly be one thing else however two p.c is inside the regular vary.’

Urgent that time he advised the jury: ‘You and I’ve someplace between zero and three.’

He stated Fowler’s assertion that Floyd’s carbon monoxide may have elevated to between ten and 18 p.c was ‘merely unsuitable’.

Tobin additionally forged doubt on Fowler’s testimony with respect to the hypopharynx – the realm of the throat that, he stated, wouldn’t have been narrowed by Chauvin’s knee on his neck.

Fowler stated he may discover no analysis to assist the notion that it could have.

In the present day Tobin stated: ‘There’s at the least a dozen possibly 20 research that present the connection between how in case you decrease the scale of the lungs you have to get a lower within the hypopharynx.’

However he stated there was no particular analysis into how stress on the neck narrows it as a result of ‘we attempt to do analysis and research that could be puzzling’.

Tobin defined: ‘If you consider sticking your fingers into your neck it’s going to slim the hypopharynx. It’s widespread sense.’

In a short cross-examination, Nelson identified that Tobin had not produced for the courts evaluate any of the handfuls of articles which he cited. 

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